Like a lot of technically inclined people I have my own VPS and I’ve setup CMS/blogging platforms like Wordpress on several occasions but for my own blog I want simple (over the long run) and little to no maintenance. It turns out that GitHub will host static web pages for their users for free. GitHub hosted websites are referred to as GitHub Pages.
GitHub pages come in two varieties:
- Project pages: These are for creating project documentation. In the existing repo for a project create a
gh-pagesbranch. Project Pages are served from USERNAME.github.io/PROJECTNAME.
- User/Organization pages: These are for creating pages about you or your organization. This is the type of pages I’ll be using for a blog. In your GitHub account create a repo named USERNAME.github.io where USERNAME is your username. The master branch in this repo will be contain your pages.
I’m looking to make a set of user pages so step one is to go to https://github.com/new and create a repo named
chasetec.github.io (replace chasetec with your username).
There is a web-based automatic page generator you can find in the repository’s settings page. This will let you use GitHub’s web-based markdown editor, pick one of several provided themes, and publish your pages with little fuss. For more about GitHub Pages see http://pages.github.com/. I used the page generator at first so I could see the structure of the repo. Be aware that the first time you publish your Pages repo (whether you use the generator or not) it will take 10 minutes before the your pages go live.
I don’t want to use the page generator to maintain my blog so I’ll need to switch to more traditional repository management.
git clone https://github.com/chasetec/chasetec.github.io.git cd chasetec.github.io/
One of the cool things about GitHub Pages is that they support Markdown along with some GitHub extensions. Create a
test.md file in you Pages repo and it’ll be converted to
test.html by GitHub. The content of test.markdown would be something like:
--- title: My Markdown test page --- # This is a H1 [My GitHub Person Pages](http://chasetec.github.io/) Things to do: * Get my blog going * Get Jekyll working
Stage, commit, and push the file:
git add test.markdown git commit -m "adding markdown test" git push origin master
The resulting page would be located at http://chasetec.github.io/test.html.
There is one big limitation with GitHub Pages that you should be aware of. They aren’t dynamic in the traditional sense. You can’t have pages with code in them that executes at request time on the server-side. That means no PHP, JSP, or ASPX type files. To overcome this limitation you can use Jekyll. Jekyll is a blog-aware site generator that GitHub supports. When using Jekyll you create your site as a collection of files which can use various markup languages and templating statements and then run the files through Jekyll which generates all of your HTML. GitHub runs your GitHub Pages through Jekyll when you push your files.
For testing, experimentation, and debugging you will probably want to have a local install of Jekyll although it isn’t technically required.
Setting up Jekyll
Install Ruby 1.9.3 and the Development Kit from https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/downloads/. Note: If running in Windows or Cygwin add .bat to the gem and bundle commands that most Jekyll tutorials show. I also had to make sure that Python was not installed in Cygwin because it wasn’t working with some of the Ruby gems. Install Bundler (Ruby package manager)
gem.bat install bundler
Install Python 2.7.6 from http://www.python.org/download/. You’ll need this for the syntax highlighting features of Jeykll provided by pygments.rb. The 3.X versions might cause issues, make sure the 2.7.X version is in your path first.
In your repo create a file named
Gemfile with the content:
source 'https://rubygems.org' gem 'pygments.rb', '0.5.0' gem 'github-pages'
Normally you wouldn’t need the pygments.rb line because it is a dependency that gets dragged in but for me the current version (0.5.4) doesn’t work on Win7 and I had to switch back to 0.5.0.
Create a basic Jekyll site.
bundle.bat exec jekyll new . --force
Edit the generated
.gitingnore file and add
Gemfile.lock to the list of ignored files.
To start Jekyll and test your site locally run:
bundle.bat exec jekyll serve
Note that for me ctrl-c to stop Jekyll was not working in cygwin and I had to use taskmgr to kill the ruby process. Running from cmd.exe doesn’t have the same issue. If you get an error the second time you run Jekyll that says
error: Only one usage of each socket address (protocol/network address/port) is normally permitted. then you might have the same problem.
Now you should be able to browse to http://localhost:4000/ and see your new site.
The first step to editing your new blog is to modify the site name within the
_config.yml file. After restarting Jekyll you should see the updated title on the index page.
Step two is to create a blog posting. Start by creating a
_drafts folder and moving the sample blog post that was created with the site.
mv _posts/2013-12-11-welcome-to-jekyll.markdown _drafts/template_post.md
Drafts are not published by default and I keep a starting blog template in the
_drafts folder. Posts in the
_posts directory should be named YEAR-MONTH-DAY-TITLE.MARKUPLANGUAGE and should start with a YAML front-matter section like so:
--- layout: post title: "Starting a GitHub Blog" categories: github jekyll ---
You can view the raw text for this blog posting if you’d like to see how I’ve used Markdown.
The last step is to edit
_layouts/default.html and update the information in the footer div. Test one last time and if everything looks good then push your blog to your Pages repo.